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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Regular paper 07 May 2019

Regular paper | 07 May 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO).

Model of Propagation of VLF Beams in the Waveguide Earth-Ionosphere. Principles of Tensor Impedance Method in Multilayered Gyrotropic Waveguides

Yuriy Rapoport1, Vladimir Grimalsky2, Victor Fedun3, Oleksiy Agapitov4, John Bonnell4, Asen Grytsai1, Gennadi Milinevsky1,5, Alex Liashchuk6, Alexander Rozhnoi7, Maria Solovieva7, and Andrey Gulin1 Yuriy Rapoport et al.
  • 1Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine
  • 2Autonomous University of State Morelos (UAEM), Mexico
  • 3The University of Sheffield, UK
  • 4University of California, Berkeley, USA
  • 5College of Physics, International Center of Future Science, Jilin University, Changchun, China
  • 6National Center for Control and Testing of Space Facilities of the State Agency of Ukraine, Ukraine
  • 7Institute of the Earth Physics, RAS, Moscow, Russia

Abstract. Modeling propagation of VLF electromagnetic beams in the waveguide earth-ionosphere (WGEI) is of a great importance because variation in the characteristics of these waves is an effective instrument for diagnostics the influences on the ionosphere from above (Sun-Solar Wind-Magnetosphere-Ionosphere), from below (the most powerful meteorological, seismogenic and other sources in the lower atmosphere and lithosphere/Earth, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis etc.), from inside the ionosphere (strong thunderstorms and lightning discharges) and even from the far space (such as gamma-flashes, cosmic rays etc.). Thus, VLF became one of the most universal instrument for monitoringthe Space Weather in the direct sense of this term, i.e. the state of the Sun-Earth space and the ionosphere as it is particularly determined by all possible relatively powerful sources, wherever they are placed. This paper is devoted mostly to modelling VLF electromagnetic beam propagation in the WGEI. We present a new tensor impedance method for modelling propagation of electromagnetic beams (TIMEB) in a multi-layered/inhomogeneous waveguide. Suppose that such a waveguide, i.e. WGEI, possesses the gyrotropy and inhomogeneity with a thick cover layer placed above the waveguide. Note a very useful and attractive feature of the proposed TIMEB method: in spite of a large thickness of the waveguide cover layer, the proposed effective impedance approach reflects an impact of such a cover on the electromagnetic (EM) waves, which propagate in the waveguide. This impedance approach can be applied for EM waves/beams in layered gyrotropic/anisotropic active media in very wide frequency range, from VLF to optics. Moreover, this approach can be applied to calculations of EM waves/beams propagation in the media of an artificial origin such as metamaterial microwave or optical waveguides. The results of the modelling the propagation of VLF beams in the WGEI are included. The qualitative comparison between the theory and experimental observation of increasing losses of VLF waves in the WGEI is discussed. The new proposed method and its further development allows the comparison with the results of the future rocket experiment. This method allows to model (i) excitation of the VLF modes in the WGEI and their excitation by the typical VLF sources, such as radio wave transmitters and lightning discharges and (ii) leakage of VLF waves/beams into the upper ionosphere/magnetosphere.

Yuriy Rapoport et al.
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Yuriy Rapoport et al.
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Short summary
The paper treats analytically and numerically the new theoretical basis for ground-based and satellite monitoring the most powerful processes in the lower atmosphere/Earth (hurricanes, earthquakes etc.), solar wind-magnetosphere (magnetic storms) and ionosphere (lightning discharges/thunderstorms etc.). This can be provided by determination of phases and amplitudes of radio waves of kHz range in cavity Earth-Ionosphere. In perspective, the damage from the natural disasters can be decreased.
The paper treats analytically and numerically the new theoretical basis for ground-based and...