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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2019-125
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2019-125
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: regular paper 30 Aug 2019

Submitted as: regular paper | 30 Aug 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of the manuscript is under review for the journal Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO).

Estimating the fate of oxygen ion outflow from the high altitude cusp

Patrik Krcelic1,2, Stein Haaland1,3, Lukas Maes1, Rikard Slapak4, and Audrey Schillings5,6 Patrik Krcelic et al.
  • 1Max-Planck Institute for Solar Systems Research, Göttingen, Germany
  • 2Department of Geophysics, Faculty of science, University of Zagreb, Croatia
  • 3Birkeland Centre for Space Science, Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Norway
  • 4EISCAT Scientific Association, Kiruna, Sweden
  • 5Swedish Institute for Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden
  • 6Division of Space Technology, Lulea University of Technology, Kiruna, Sweden

Abstract. We have investigated the oxygen escape-to-capture ratio from the high altitude cusp regions for various geomagnetic activity levels by combining EDI and CODIF measurements from the Cluster spacecraft. Using Tsyganenko model, we traced the observed oxygen ions to one of three regions: plasma sheet, solar wind beyond distant X-line or dayside magnetosheath. Our results indicate that 69 % of high altitude oxygen escapes the magnetosphere, from which most escape beyond the distant X-line (50 % of total oxygen flux). Convection of oxygen to the plasma sheet shows a strong dependence on geomagnetic activity. We used the Dst index as a proxy for geomagnetic storms and separated data into quiet conditions (Dst>0 nT), moderate conditions (0>Dst>−20 nT), and active conditions (Dst<−20 nT). For quiet magnetospheric conditions we found increased escape due to low convection. For active magnetospheric conditions we found an increase in both parallel velocities and convection velocities, but the increase in convection velocities is higher, and thus most of oxygen flux gets convected into plasma sheet (73 %). The convected oxygen ions reach the plasma sheet in the distant tail, mostly beyond 50 RE.

Patrik Krcelic et al.
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Patrik Krcelic et al.
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Short summary
In this paper we have used Cluster EDI data in in combination with the CODIF cusp dataset from Slapak et al. (2017), to obtain parallel and convection velocities for oxygen ions. 69 % of total oxygen outflow from the high altitude cusps escape the magnetosphere on average. 50 % escape tailward beyond distant the X-line. The oxygen capture-versus-escape ratio is highly dependent on geomagnetic conditions. During active conditions, the majority of oxygen outflow is convected to plasma sheet.
In this paper we have used Cluster EDI data in in combination with the CODIF cusp dataset from...
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