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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2019-122
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2019-122
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: regular paper 26 Aug 2019

Submitted as: regular paper | 26 Aug 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO).

Equatorial Plasma Bubbles Developing Around Sunrise Observed by an All-Sky Imager and GNSS Network during the Storm Time

Kun Wu1,2, Jiyao Xu1,2, Xinan Yue3,2, Chao Xiong4, Wenbin Wang6, Wei Yuan1,2, Chi Wang1,2, Yajun Zhu5, and Ji Luo1,2 Kun Wu et al.
  • 1State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • 2College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • 3Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • 4GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
  • 5Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-7), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich, Germany
  • 6High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA

Abstract. A large number of studies have shown that equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) occur mainly after sunset, and they usually drift eastward. However, in this paper, an unusual EPB event was simultaneously observed by an all-sky imager and the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) network in southern China, during the recovery phase of geomagnetic storm happened on 6–8 November 2015. Observations from both techniques show that the EPBs appeared near dawn. Interestingly, the observational results show that the EPBs continued to develop after sunrise, and disappeared about one hour after sunrise. The development stage of EPBs lasted for at least about 3 hours. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the evolution of EPBs developing around sunrise was observed by an all-sky imager and the GNSS network. Our observation showed that the EPBs drifted westward, which was different from the usually eastward drifts of post-sunset EPBs. The simulation from TIE-GCM model suggest that the westward drift of EPBs should be related to the enhanced westward winds at storm time. Besides, break and recombination processes of EPBs were observed by the all-sky imager in the event. Associated with the development of EPBs, increasing in the ionospheric F region peak height was also observed near sunrise, and we suggest the enhance upward vertical plasma drift during geomagnetic storm plays a major role in triggering the EPBs near sunrise.

Kun Wu et al.
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Short summary
A special EPB event, which emerged near dawn and kept developing after sunrise, was simultaneously observed by an all-sky imager and the GNSS network. The observed EPBs showed westward drifts. These characteristics are different from post-sunset EPBs. Those EPBs occurred in the recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm, which could play a key role in initializing their developments. These results provide a new perspective of the EPBs that enriches our knowledge of ionospheric irregularity.
A special EPB event, which emerged near dawn and kept developing after sunrise, was...
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