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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2019-106
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2019-106
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: regular paper 21 Aug 2019

Submitted as: regular paper | 21 Aug 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO).

Inter-hemispheric seasonal comparison of Polar Amplification using radiative forcing of quadrupling CO2 experiment

Fernanda Casagrande, Ronald Buss de Souza, Paulo Nobre, and Andre Lanfer Marquez Fernanda Casagrande et al.
  • Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Research, National Institute for Space Research, Cachoeira Paulista, 13620-000 Brazil

Abstract. The numerical climate simulation from Brazilian Earth System Model (BESM) are used here to investigate the response of Polar Regions to a forced increase of CO2 (Abrupt-4xCO2) and compared with Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) simulations. Polar Regions are described as the most climatically sensitive areas of the globe, with an enhanced warming occurring during the cold seasons. The asymmetry between the two poles is related to the thermal inertia and the coupled ocean atmosphere processes involved. While in the northern high latitudes the amplified warming signal is associated to a positive snow and sea ice albedo feedback, for southern high latitudes the warming is related to a combination of ozone depletion and changes in the winds pattern. The numerical experiments conducted here demonstrated a very clear evidence of seasonality in the polar amplification response. In winter, for the northern high latitudes (southern high latitudes) the range of simulated polar warming varied from 15 K to 30 K (2.6 K to 10 K). In summer, for northern high latitudes (southern high latitudes) the simulated warming varies from 3 K to 15 K (3 K to 7 K). The vertical profiles of air temperature indicated stronger warming at surface, particularly for the Arctic region, suggesting that the albedo-sea ice feedback overlaps with the warming caused by meridional transport of heat in atmosphere. The latitude of the maximum warming was inversely correlated with changes in the sea ice within the model’s control run. Three climate models were identified as having high polar amplification for cold season in both poles: MIROC-ESM, BESM-OA V2.5 and GFDL-ESM2M. We suggest that the large BIAS found between models can be related to the differences in each model to represent the feedback process and also as a consequence of the distinct sea ice initial conditions of each model. The polar amplification phenomenon has been observed previously and is expected to become stronger in coming decades. The consequences for the atmospheric and ocean circulation are still subject to intense debate in the scientific community.

Fernanda Casagrande et al.
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Fernanda Casagrande et al.
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