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Discussion papers | Copyright
https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-2018-76
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Regular paper 23 Jul 2018

Regular paper | 23 Jul 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO).

Capturing the signature of heavy rainfall events using the 2-d-/4-d water vapour information derived from GNSS measurement in Hong Kong

Qingzhi Zhao1, Yibin Yao2, and Wanqiang Yao1 Qingzhi Zhao et al.
  • 1College of Geomatics, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an 710054, China
  • 2School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China

Abstract. Apart from the well-known applications like positioning, navigation and timing (PNT), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has manifested its ability in many other areas that are vital to society largely. With the dense setting of the regional continuously operating reference station (CORS) networks, monitoring the variations in atmospheric water vapour using a GNSS technique has become the focus in the field of GNSS meteorology. Most previous studies mainly concentrate on the analysis of relationship between the two-dimensional (2-d) Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV) and rainfall while the four-dimensional (4-d) variations of atmospheric water vapour derived from the GNSS tomographic technique during rainfall events are rarely discussed. This becomes the focus of this work, which investigates the emerging field of GNSS technology for monitoring changes in atmospheric water vapour during rainfall, especially in the vertical direction. This paper includes an analysis of both 2-d, and 4-d, precipitable water vapour profiles. A period with heavy rainfall events in this study was selected to capture the signature of atmospheric water vapour variation using the ground-based GNSS tomographic technique. GNSS observations from the CORS network of Hong Kong were used. Analysed results of the 2-d PWV/4-d water vapour profiles change during the arrival, occurrence, and depression of heavy rainfall show that: (i) the PWV time series shows an increasing trend before the arrival of heavy rainfall and decreases to its average value after the depression of rainfall; (ii) rainfall leads to an anomalous variation in relative humidity and temperature while their trends are totally opposite and show daily periodicity for periods without rain (this is highly correlated with the changes in solar radiation); (iii) atmospheric water vapour presents unstable conditions with intense vertical convective motion and hydrometeors are formed before the arrival of rainfall while returning to relatively stable conditions during heavy rainfall. This study indicates the potential for using GNSS-derived 2-d PWV and 4-d profiles to monitor spatio-temporal variations in atmospheric water vapour during rainfall, which provides a better understanding of the mechanism of convection and rainfall induced by the extreme weather events.

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This paper captures the signature of heavy rainfall events using the 2-d-/4-d water vapour information derived from GNSS measurement in Hong Kong. The paper first analyzed the relationship between the two-dimensional (2-d) precipitable water vapour (PWV) and rainfall. And then, the four-dimensional (4-d) variations of atmospheric water vapour derived from the GNSS tomographic technique are discussed, especially in the vertical irection. Finally, some interesting results are found and presented.
This paper captures the signature of heavy rainfall events using the 2-d-/4-d water vapour...
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