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Annales Geophysicae An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Regular paper 16 Jan 2019

Regular paper | 16 Jan 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of the manuscript is under review for the journal Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO).

Diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle variation of total electron content and comparison with the IRI-2016 model at Birnin Kebbi

Aghogho Ogwala1, Emmanuel Olufemi Somoye1, Olugbenga Ogunmudimu3, Rasaq Adewemimo Adeniji-Adele1, Eugene Ogheneakpobor Onori1, and Oluwole Oyedokun2 Aghogho Ogwala et al.
  • 1Department of Physics, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria
  • 2Department of Physics, University of Lagos, Nigeria
  • 3Department of Electrical Engineering, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK

Abstract. Total Electron Content (TEC) is an important ionospheric parameter used to monitor possible space weather impacts on satellite to ground communication and satellite navigation system. TEC is modified in the ionosphere by changing solar Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) radiation, geomagnetic storms, and the atmospheric waves that propagate up from the lower atmosphere. Therefore, TEC depends on local time, latitude, longitude, season, geomagnetic conditions, solar cycle activity, and condition of the troposphere. A dual frequency GPS receiver located at an equatorial station, Birnin-Kebbi in Northern Nigeria (geographic location: 12.64° N; 4.22° E), has been used to investigate variation of TEC during the period of 2011 to 2014. We investigate the diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle dependence of observed (OBS) TEC and comparison with latest version of International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2016) model. On a general note, diurnal variation reveals discrepancies between OBS-TEC and IRI-2016 model for all hours of the day except during the post-midnight hours. Slight post-noon peaks in the daytime maximum and post-sunset decrease and enhancement are observed in the diurnal variation of OBS-TEC of some months. On a seasonal scale, we observed that OBS-TEC values were higher in the equinoxes than the solstices only in 2012. Where as in 2011, September equinox and December solstice recorded higher magnitude followed by March equinox and lowest in June solstice. In 2013, December solstice magnitude was highest, followed by the equinoxes and lowest in June solstice. In 2014, March equinox and December solstice magnitude were higher than September equinox and June solstice magnitude. June solstice consistently recorded the lowest values for all the years. OBS-TEC is found to increase from 2011 to 2014, thus revealing solar cycle dependence.

Aghogho Ogwala et al.
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Status: final response (author comments only)
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Aghogho Ogwala et al.
Aghogho Ogwala et al.
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Short summary
Higher TEC day-to-day variations during the daytime than nighttime for all the years were observed. The diurnal variation shows OBS-TEC rising rapidly from a minimum just before sunrise between 03:00–05:00 LT (~ 2 TECU) in 2011, 04:00–05:00 LT (~ 3 TECU) in 2012, 03:00–05:00 LT in 2013 (~ 3 TECU), and 03:00–05:00 LT in 2014 (~3 TECU). OBS-TEC is found to increase to a broad daytime maximum between 00:12 LT 354–00:16 LT for all years before falling to a minimum after sunset.
Higher TEC day-to-day variations during the daytime than nighttime for all the years were...